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This section contains a fairly extensive glossary. This is a selection of wordsthat are related to the UNIX environment and their definitions. The authors of thisbook contributed words pertinent to their chapters to this section.NOTE: The language of the computer field is constantlyexpanding. If you cannot find a word in this section, it is because either it isnewer than anything the authors knew about or the authors decided it was so obviousthat \"everyone should already know it.\" Glossary of Terms$HOMEEnvironment variable that points to your login directory.$PATHThe shell environment variable that contains a set of directories to be searchedfor UNIX commands./dev/null fileThe place to send output that you are not interesting in seeing; also the placeto get input from when you have none (but the program or command requires something).This is also known as the bit bucket, which is where old bits go to die./etc/cshrc fileThe file containing shell environment characteristics common to all users thatuse the C Shell./etc/group fileThis file contains information about groups, the users they contain, and passwordsrequired for access by other users. The password may actually be in another file--theshadow group file--to protect it from attacks./etc/inittab fileThe file that contains a list of active terminal ports for which UNIX will issuethe login prompt. This also contains a list of background processes for UNIX to initialize.Some versions of UNIX use other files like /etc/tty./etc/motd fileMessage Of The Day file usually contains information the system administratorfeels is important for you to know. This file is displayed when the user signs onthe system./etc/passwd fileContains user information and password. The password may actually be in anotherfile--the shadow password file--to protect it from attacks./etc/profileThe file containing shell environment characteristics common to all users thatuse the Bourne and Korn shells.abbreviation(vi) User-defined character sequences that are expanded into the defined textstring when typed during insert mode.absolute pathnameThe means used to represent the location of a file in a directory by specifyingthe exact location including all directories in the chain including the root.API (Application Program Interface)The specific method prescribed by a computer operating system, application, orthird-party tool by which a programmer writing an application program can make requestsof the operating system.argumentsSee parameters.ARPASee DARPA.ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)Used to represent characters in memory for most computers.AT&T UNIXOriginal version of UNIX developed at AT&T Bell Labs, which was later knownas UNIX Systems Laboratories. Many current versions of UNIX are descendants; evenBSD UNIX was derived from early AT&T UNIX.attributeThe means of describing objects. The attributes for a ball might be: rubber, red,3 cm in diameter. The behavior of the ball might be how high it bounces when thrown.Attribute is another name for the data contained within an object (class).AWKProgramming language developed by A.V. Aho, P.J. Weinberger, and Brian W. Kernighan.The language is built on C syntax, includes the regular expression search facilitiesof grep, and adds in the advanced string and array handling features that are missingfrom the C language. nawk, gawk, and POSIX awk are versions of this language.backgroundProcesses usually running at a lower priority and with their input disconnectedfrom the interactive session. Any input and output are usually directed to a fileor other process.background processAn autonomous process that runs under UNIX without requiring user interaction.backupThe process of storing the UNIX system, applications, and data files on removablemedia for future retrieval.BASHBASH stands for GNU Bourne Again Shell, and is based on the Bourne shell, sh,the original command interpreter.beepUsually referred to in UNIX documentation as the bell (see bell).bellThe character sent by a program to a terminal to indicate some kind of \"error\"condition; for example, in vi pressing Esc to exit insert mode whenyou are already in command mode; actually the ^G character which rather than displayingon the terminal instead causes it to sound an \"alarm,\" which on ancientteletype terminals was implemented as a bell. Different terminals produce differentsounds for their bells including one old video terminal that sounded like someoneshifting gears without benefit of clutch.binding(emacs) The assignment of a shift-key sequence to an Emacsediting command.block-specialA device file that is used to communicate with a block oriented I/O device. Diskand tape drives are examples of block devices. The block-special file refers to theentire device. You should not use this file unless you want to ignore the directorystructure of the device (that is, if you are coding a device driver).boot or boot upThe process of starting the operating system (UNIX).Bourne ShellThe original standard user interface to UNIX that supported limited programmingcapability.BSD UNIXVersion of UNIX developed by Berkeley Software Distribution and written at UCBerkeleybuffer(vi) The working version of the file you are editing is usually called the buffer;the buffer is actually an image of the file kept in random access memory during editing;changes are made in this image and only written out to disk upon user command (orwhen the vi autowrite setting is in effect); see also named bufferand undo buffer.buffer list(emacs) A special window which shows all of the buffers currently open; allowsyou to manipulate buffers using buffer list commands.CProgramming language developed by Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie. TheC language is highly portable and available on many platforms including mainframes,PCs, and, of course, UNIX systems.C ShellA user interface for UNIX written by Bill Joy at Berkeley. It also features Cprogramming-like syntax.CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)Computer-readable data stored on the same physical form as a musical CD. Largecapacity, inexpensive, slower than a hard disk, and limited to reading. There areversions that are writable (CD-R, CD Recordable) and other formats that can be writtento once or many times.CGI (Common Gateway Interface)A means of transmitting data between Web pages and programs or scripts executingon the server. Those programs can then process the data and send the results backto the users browser through dynamically creating HTML.character-specialA device file that is used to communicate with character-oriented I/O devicessuch as terminals, printers, or network communications lines. All I/O access is treatedas a series of bytes (characters).characters1. alphabeticThe letters A through Z and a through z.2. alphanumericThe letters A through Z and a through z, and the numbers 0 through 9.3. controlAny non-printable characters. The characters are used to control devices, separaterecords, and eject pages on printers.4. numericThe numbers 0 through 9.5. specialAny of the punctuation characters or printable characters that are not alphanumeric.Include the space, comma, period, and many others.child-processSee sub-process.child-shellSee sub-shell.classA model of objects that have attributes (data) and behavior (code or functions).It is also viewed as a collection of objects in their abstracted form.command line(1) The shell command line from which the current vi or Emacs sessionwas started; (2) the ex command line, where ex commands are entered.command line editingUNIX shells support the ability to recall a previously entered command, modifyit, and then execute the new version. The command history can remain between sessions(the commands you did yesterday can be available for you when you log in today).Some shells support a command line editing mode that uses a subset of the vi, emacs,or gmacs editor commands for command recall and modification.command line historySee command line editing.command line parametersUsed to specify parameters to pass to the execute program or procedure. Also knownas command line arguments.command promptSee shell prompt.completion(emacs) The automatic provision of the rest of a command or a file name; whenthe command or file name cannot be resolved to a single entity, a menu of choicesis provided (type a few characters of the name and press TAB; Emacswill either complete the name or give you a menu of choices).configuration filesCollections of information used to initialize and set up the environment for specificcommands and programs. Shell configuration files set up the user's environment.configuration files, shell 59ce067264